digital nature: eTrees & software generated leaves, roots, seedpods, & branches as integral to bio-design & architecture . . .
ExodesicDennis DollensBioDigital Architecture: Digitally-Growing Structure, Space, Surface, & Components
Bio-observation, Generative Code, and Software Growth for digitally hybridizing & growing architectural forms, surfaces, & structures . . .
STL models whose surfaces were generated from branching based on plants
Digitaly-Grown Architecture #1: Branching Structures
Books, Journals, & Magazines
Digitally-Grown Architecture #2: Space (seed pods)
Digitally-Grown Architecture: STL
Digitally-Grown Architecture #3: Surface (leaves)
Biomimetic Concept

Natural and digitally grown (Xfrog) tumbleweeds as an example of biomimetic observations that can then be edited/developed and used for 3D visualization and CAD/CAM manufacturing

Biomimetic process of studying plant morphology and applying observed properties to digital forms leading to the development of a series of icons that are used like a form-lexicon (right) for the development of structures, surfaces and spaces

El Proyecto TumbleTruss The TumbleTruss Project


ISBN 84-921103-4-1

From the Xfrog grown plant above, an individual leaf was selected and exported to Rhino where it was modified to function as a canopy segment by transformig it into a monocoque shell (rendering far right) for use as a repeating, roof element for the first stage of a plaza redevelopment project in Pontecagnagno, Sicily. In elevation (top) and plan (below, right) the "leaf" has a likeness to a bird in flight while in the head-on rendering, it maintains a leaf-like quality.The intention was to create a light-weight, strong, repeatable unit with natural referances developed through technological visualization and CAD/CAM production
Genetic Architectures / Arquitecturas Geneticas


Alberto Estévez, Alfons Puigarnau, Ignasi Pérez Arnal, Dennis Dollens, Alfonso Pérez-Mendez, Joaquim Ruiz Millet, Ana Planella. Co-published with ESARQ—UIC

ISBN 0-930829-51-4

$17 •

(Spring 2004)

De lo digital a lo analogico

(Spanish translation by Ana Planella)

Editorial Gustavo Gili

ISBN 84-252-1909-4

D2A– Digital to Analog ISBN: 0-930829-50-6 $17 •
Exodesic: Structures, Tumbleweeds, Electronics

ISBN 0-930829-41-7

Prismatic geometries generated in Xfrog to study massing and the ability to grow geometries into interconnecting spaces as well as with nesting armatures like the spider-like frame seen at the right. In additon, experimentaiton was needed to develop grown files, edited in Rhino, into STL flies for building as STL and Thermojet models and later, potentially, CAD/CAM manufacturing.
STL built truss from a file grown as branches curving into themselves in order to design a truss without a central trunk and with flexibilty. 2007-ongoing.
Dwelling or office units digitally grown but modeled on the skeletal lattice of cholla cactus to develop a linking, fabric-like structure.
Tower with central trunk grown in Xfrog & component skin generated in ParaCloud laminated with glass.
Left and above: Alternative parametric canopy surfaces and ribs generated in ParaCloud
Above: Branching column scaled up to sprout and grow floors for an example of a large-scale building armature with floors. Near right: Thermojet model. Far right: Renderings of massive support column with floors.
Trend: Art + Design + Architecture

by Ellen Berkovitch • Spring 2008

28 page Comic Book # 1:

A Pangolin's Guide to Biomimetics & Digital Architecture

$7 •

Leonardo 38/1, Spring 2005

Pages 14-21, 38

Above: Branching column supporting a canopy roof developed from a tree grown in Xfrog and given geometric properties--using the same biomimetic principles as outlined to the left.

. Right, top row: Xfrog screens of growing tree/column. Middle row: 3D Studio MAX rendering of branching column. Bottom and far right: STL models built directly from Xfrog/Rhino files.

BioTower. 2009.

Digitally grown eTree, branches, leaves, and flowers programmed as an experiment dealing with environmentally active functions in order to create biomechanical, living, achitecture. Generated in Xfrog, edited in Rhino, and rendered in 3DS MAX.

Metalocus #4 (Madrid)

Pages 30-41

Edited by J.J. Barba

Biomimetic Transference—Series of penstemon leaves (above) used as a living model to conceptualize and translate botanic qualities to Xfrog growth and Rhino development of the canopy leaf.

Top and right—Xfrog grown leaf with differing surface noise. The project on the right is for roofing and enclosing a low-rise structure. 2005.

Above: Computationally generated truss illustrating an eTrees whose branches have been regularized, grown curving back into the trunk
Blueprint, May 2004. (London)

Pages 40-41. Article by Katy Dunn

Free PDF download at—click on the book to open or download.
Xfrog grown, Rhino edited, & MAX rendered truss based on the branches of a tree grown into the tree trunk as a truss and with other branches grown out as struts. Bottom: STL model built from Xfrog & Rhino files.
D-B-A: Digital-Botanic Architecture by Dennis Dollens
Forthcoming Paperback D-BA2: Digital-Botanic Architecture II By Dennis Dollens • ISBN: 978-0-930829-69-8
amazon.comISBN 0-930829-54-9. $17
Top: Seedpod cluster and branching. Bottom: Xfrog generated pods grown on three stems with branches as clustering study (pods later replaced with cube geometries). 2005,
Free D-BA2: PDF download
Dennis Dollens exodesic

Site updated 25 September 2009

Above Animation: Weed & Pod grown in Xfrog for development of a hypothetical tower structure.

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